Monday, December 08, 2014

Battery Charger and Rechargeable Batteries

The main Types of Rechargeable Batteries are NiCd - Lead Acid - NiMH - Lithium ion. The Gel Lead Acid Battery is Termed Maintenance Free and may have to be treated differently for charging.

List of battery sizes - Wikipedia

Battery Types and their Sizes

4.5 Volt - D - C - AA - AAA - 9 Volt - SR41/AG3 - SR44/AG13

Battery Charger Circuits and Resources

Solar charger for lead-acid batteries
The charger will stop charging once a pre-set voltage (temperature compensated) has been reached, and recommence charging when the voltage has dropped off sufficiently.

12 Volt Gel Cell Charger
When a discharged gel cell is connected, the charger goes into a fast charge mode at a fixed rate of 400 ma. After the chip detects the voltage leveling off or when 4 1/2 hours has elapsed.

Temperature Controlled NiCd Charger
This circuit is for a temperature controlled constant current battery charger. It works with NICD, NIMH, and other rechargeable cells.

Battery charger 150-1700 mAh with PIC16F876
This is the extension of the simple battery charger to different battery capacities. The software and the controller are largely identical.

MAX846A Cost-Saving, Multichemistry, Battery Charge Chip
In its simplest application, the MAX846A is a stand-alone, current-limited float voltage source that charges Li-Ion cells. It can also be paired up with a low-cost microcontroller (µC) to build a universal charger capable of charging Li-Ion, NiMH, and NiCd cells.

Rechargeable Batteries and Chargers
There are three types of rechargeable batteries. They are Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd), which are the oldest type; Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH), which were developed around the same time that low-cost digital cameras were invented.

Saturday, December 06, 2014

Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Product Safety
  • Product should not give even the lightest shock, Even metal parts on user side to be laminated.
  • High energy circuits never enters analog and digital circuit areas without Opto or other Isolation.
  • Gadgets, Furniture, Tools and Storage Units should not cause injury. Rounded Edges, Non Toxic.
Worker Safety
  • Helmet, Goggles and Face/Respiratory Mask when working with power tools/ abrasion and large objects.
  • Crepe Bandage, Neoprene Ankle/Knee/Thigh Support when pushing or pulling or Physical Exertion.
  • Waist/Back Support Belts and Straps to reinforce back/spine while doing Heavy Lifting or Movement.
  • Waistband Thick Belt or Traditional Sash helps Posture and prevents slipped disc or spinal injury.
  • When using a Knife, Sharp Tool, Pointed Tool or Drill; cut/bore away from your body or finger/leg not towards.
  • Use Long Riding Leather/Synthetic Boots when working in chemical plants and heavy industry.
  • Cross Ventilation and exhaust fans important if even little chemical fumes are generated in your work.
  • Soldering, plastic forming and even for some kinds of material processing. Good Ventilation or Masks needed.
Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Workshop Safety
  • Fire hazard and Air pollution in the workplace is the most important two dangers, Electricity is third.
  • Use Leather Boots when working with high voltage, also silicone flexible gloves or Latex Gloves.
My Recent Lessons -

I have long stopped using power tools as the injury is more in that. I have again started using small tools. Some notes.
Wear ear muffs when Noise present in surroundings to avoid distraction. When your own tools/work create too much noise, then also ear muffs protect ears, give some allowance/filter for audio feedback .
  • Cut away from you, not towards. Sharp tools and Power tools keep job at a distance. Watch for Splinters.
  • Both Legs and at least one hand insulated when working with High Voltage.
  • Use the right tool for the right job. Do not use cutting plair like a hammer.
  • Do not use Teeth, Legs etc. as tools. Only Iron and Steel should face the Job.

Monday, December 01, 2014

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

Ergonomics and Manpower the Engine of Growth -  A Worker in One Firm is a Customer for another Firm. Healthy and Safe Workers implies a strengthening Consumer base.Just imagine what wonders it can do for the economy, when you broaden your view, think togetherness, as a Whole; not in isolated competitive groups, not in parts.

Ergonomics reduces Worker Stress. Helps in keeping good Mental and Physical Health. Safety is very important. His Limbs, Eyes and Ears are assets that a firm hires.

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

A good Manager knows that Manpower is the Foremost Asset of any Company.
First Aid and Flame Resistant Uniforms

Tools and Apparel to make workplace safe. First Aid and Safety, Fire Protection and Flame Resistant Clothing. Cleanrooms  are very important for Microelectronics, MEMS and Precision Instrumentation.

In spite of "Prevention better than cure", a worker can get injured, more so on the field, where preventive measures may not be in place. A Portable First Aid Kit that should be in Service and Commissioning Departments. A stitch in time saves nine. in reference to: "Your employees may require first aid at remote worksites, too."

Worker Safety and Health Education

When we educate ourselves about a Hazard, that awareness is the first step of defense. Resources like this should have a Kids Section. Just like Nasa and Fcc have. We have to catch them young, Interactive tutors and Activities will prepare them for a Safe and Sensible future. Home, Garden, Transport and School are also like a Workpace.

Kids of recent generations are degrading intellectually, it is more so in the developed countries. Education has to be emphasized, Hobby DIY activities encouraged. Hardships simulated, so they become responsible Young Citizens.

Rockefeller Jr. (A Philanthropist) was brought up with such discipline, he was not allowed entertainment when he was young. His father the richest man in the US at that time.

Resource for Workers and Employers. CDC - Workplace Safety and Health

Intrinsic Safety and Zener Barriers

Designing and Building Intrinsically safe Industrial Systems is of paramount importance as Human Safety is involved. Even in Switching Loads some contactors, relays, circuit breakers and motors are hazards as some sparking becomes inevitable.

Intrinsic Safety - Omega.com

Solid State Relays are safer but on an overload even these can pose a fire hazard if a HRC fuse is not used. Sensor measurements must employ low voltages and currents. Even cabling management and hermetically sealed enclosures may be required when volatile fluids are close by.

delabs Notes - 2002 -2005

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Amkor Technology - Semiconductor Services

A technology innovator in packaging and test solutions. The pakaging formats include wafer level, CSP, BGA, leadframe and the enablement of next generation 3D packaging solutions.

They offer test services for many devices and designs that are used in Mordern day Electronic Gadgets that have application specific integrated circuits, memory devicea, and mixed signal and RF sections.

Amkor Technology - Semiconductor Services

Amkor also offers IC and Semiconductor Test Services. The also provide IC Package Design Services and complete turnkey solutions.

Amkor Flip Chip BGA (fcBGA) packages are assembled around state-of-the-art, single unit laminate or ceramic substrates.

Flip Chip BGA - Amkor Technology

This IC packaging technology is applicable for high pincount and / or high performance ASICs.

The variety of fcBGA package options allows package selection to be tailored to the specific thermal needs of the end product.

Flip Chip BGA - fcBGA

Amkor Technology
1900 South Price Road, Chandler AZ USA

Sunday, November 09, 2014

Home Automation by Edward Cheung

"This centralized system can control almost all of the lights in my home, a few appliances, the garden irrigation, some window treatments, the Audio/Video system, the security system, and the HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning)."

Home Automation by Edward Cheung

"This centralized system can control almost all of the lights in my home, a few appliances, the garden irrigation, some window treatments, the Audio/Video system, the security system, and the HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning)."

Home Automation by Edward Cheung

"I can communicate with the central computer by using keypads throughout the house, any phone in the world (including those inside the home), any browser over the internet, and from my wrist watch. A webcam (with integral pan/tilt) allows me to see what is happening with nothing but a web browser."

Thursday, November 06, 2014

SPICE Analog Simulation Program TINA TI

TINA is an easy-to-use, but powerful, circuit simulation program based on a SPICE engine. TINA-TI is a fully functional version of TINA, loaded with a library of TI macromodels plus passive and active models.
TINA-TI's new version 7.0 has changes from Version 6.0 in the following areas:

SPICE Analog Simulation Program TINA TI

SPICE Analog Simulation Program TINA TI

TINA-TI provides all the conventional DC, transient and frequency domain analysis of SPICE and much more. TINA has extensive post-processing capability that allows you to format results the way you want them. Virtual instruments allow you to select input waveforms and probe circuit nodes voltages and waveforms. TINA's schematic capture is truly intuitive-a real "quickstart."
  • Provides support for switching power supply devices.
  • No limit to circuit size.
  • More SPICE models and example circuits included.
  • SMPS simulation capability.
  • Circuits developed in TINA-TI 7.0 will work with TINA Industrial version 7.
Application Schematic categories include:
  • Audio Op Amp Filters, Microphone Pre-Amplifiers
  • Control Loop for PI Temp Control and Current Loop 4-20mA
  • Signal Conditioner - Thermistor, Resistive Bridge, Capacitive Bridge
  • Reference Designs from device evaluation modules for SMPS Devices

Thursday, October 09, 2014

Lantronix - Device Networking and IoT

Lantronix network enablement solutions connect almost any peripheral electronic device to a network or the Internet, enabling it to be remotely accessed, monitored and controlled. Have a look at the Networking Technology Tutorials.

Lantronix - Device Networking and IoT

"Lantronix xPico Wi-Fi, one of the world’s smallest and most flexible Wi-Fi device servers. xPico Wi-Fi is a pin and form factor compatible state-of-the-art member of the xPico family, providing low power, Soft AP and simultaneous client mode, full IP and WLAN stacks. The xPico Wi-Fi is a complete device server suitable for mobile M2M applications..."

xPico - Embedded Wireless Device Server

xPico - Embedded Wireless Device Server Kit

"Enable Your Tablet & Smartphone, Access your data and devices from anywhere, wired or wireless. Lantronix industry-proven device server application and protocol stacks enables seamless remote access to device data, simplifying design integration, all while providing robust connectivity......."

Monday, October 06, 2014

Imagineering On-line Magazine

"Some people collect stamps, coins or baseball cards, I collect electronic circuit schematics. I own several book shelves and file cabinets full of electronic circuit books, IC application manuals and circuit encyclopedias. I often use my collection for reference."

Imagineering On-line Magazine

David A. Johnson, - P.E. consulting electronics engineer.

(This resource by dave is very important for Electronic Enthusiasts, Engineers and R&D Engineers. I say this as an R&D Professional with more than 20 years off the ground)

Capacitance Proimity Switch Technology -The Design Corner, Imagineering E-Zine

Capacitance Proimity Switch Technology -The Design Corner, Imagineering E-Zine

"These switch circuits used a sensitive high impedance circuit to detect the small AC power line signals, picked up by the human body from nearby appliances."

(These are the type of technologies that lead to the Touch Screens on Tablets and Phones.

Wednesday, October 01, 2014

Digi - Wireless Device Networking

Device networking for business, develops reliable products and technologies to connect and securely manage local or remote electronic devices over the network or via the web.

"Digi provides the essential layer of machine-to-machine (M2M) communications — the remote monitoring and management that critical applications depend on."

Digi - Wireless Device Networking

External and embedded Wi-Fi products make it easy to add embedded 802.11a/b/g wireless LAN networking to any electronic device, or to connect serial devices over a Wi-Fi network.

The XBee Wi-Fi Cloud Kit includes all of the hardware and software tools needed to build a cloud-connected Wi-Fi prototype in under an hour. The Internet of Things has never been so simple!

XBee Wi-Fi OEM Module

XBee Wi-Fi -  OEM Module - with Fully Integrated Support for Digi Device Cloud.

The XBee Wi-Fi Cloud Kit, which fully integrates into Device Cloud, is a simple way for anyone with an interest in M2M and the Internet of Things to quickly build a hardware prototype and integrate it into an internet-based application.


Digi International Inc.
11001 Bren Road East, Minnetonka, MN 55343, USA.

delabs Notes

Digi is one of the Pioneers of Device Networking or M2M as it may be called now. Some call the Systems applying these technologies as "Internet of Things - IoT" today (Home and Office Automation).

Derived for this Device Networking term, we have "Wireless Sensor(and Actuator) Networks - WSN" in Industrial Automation. In Robotics it is  "Wireless Collaborative Robotics".

If you see above closely, Sensor and Actuators with Intelligence is Robotics. So the dividing line disappears. The human is trying to make the machine more like him, both at work and play. Communications is important for that to happen.

Saturday, September 20, 2014

8051 Macro Assembler ASEM-51

In 1979 Intel has introduced the 8051 as the first member of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers. Today hundreds of cheap 8051 derivatives are available from dozens of manufacturers. This makes the MCS-51 architecture so interesting for professionals and hobbyists.

8051 Macro Assembler ASEM-51

Intel had also defined an 8051 assembly language with bells and whistles for all the subtle peculiarities of the MCS-51 core, and offered a well-designed 8051 assembler, the legendary ASM51. Unfortunately, Intel obsoleted all its MCS-51 development tools in December 1993. The original (and IMHO best) 8051 assembler was gone and no longer available! ....... - W.W. Heinz,

ASEM-51 is a two-pass macro assembler for the Intel MCS-51 family of microcontrollers. It is running on the PC under MS-DOS, Windows and Linux. The ASEM-51 assembly language is a rich subset of the Intel standard that guarantees maximum compatibility with existing 8051 assembler sources.

"In the letter, they told me that they had used my ASEM-51 V1.2 to develop the motor-control software for a little Mars car prototype..."

8051 Macro Assembler ASEM-51 in Mars

They had validated several 8051 assemblers, and found ASEM-51 to be the most reliable and best documented one.

Thursday, September 18, 2014

8052.com - The Online 8052 Resource

A web site that is dedicated exclusively to the 8052 mirocontroller, related products (both hardware and software), and 8052 derivative chips. This includes the traditional 8052, 8051, 8032, and 8031 along with more modern derivatives such as the Atmel AT89S8252, and many derivatives by Silicon Laboratories, Philips, and many others.

8052.com - The Online 8052 Resource


The 8052.com SBC is a single-board computer designed to be both useful and instructive in illustrating certain concepts commonly encountered in 8052-based development. Designed to compliment The 8051/8052 Microcontroller Book that was authored by Craig Steiner, the webmaster of 8052.com.

Introduction to the 8052.com SBC

The board was developed with the Atmel AT89S8252/AT89S8253 and Dallas DS89C420 in mind but can be used with any 40-pin 8052 pin-compatible derivative including the traditional true-blue 8052, 8051, 8032, 8031, etc..

SBCs were very popular before about the year 2000. Short of expensive in-circuit emulators (ICE), SBCs were one of the cheapest ways to quickly test 8052 firmware and/or experiment with the 8052 and attached devices....

Monday, September 15, 2014

Wireless Sensor Networks - MEMSIC

MEMSIC's WSN connect the physical environment with enterprise management and information systems to provide advanced monitoring, automation and control solutions for a range of industries.

Wireless Sensor Networks -  MEMSIC

WSN Nodes - A broad portfolio of wireless sensor nodes to meet the specific needs of your application for either end-user or OEM designs.

Sensor Boards - A variety of sensor boards and data acquisition cards that connect to our wireless modules and provide for both direct sensing connectivity as well as external sensor capabilities.

Gateways - A wide range of gateway boards. Multiple interfaces, including Ethernet, Wifi, USB and serial are supported to provide a base station for connecting an IRIS or MICA sensor network to an enterprise, industrial or custom network, or locally to a PC.

WSN Nodes - MCS410CA

This device uses the combination of RF and ultrasound technologies to establish differential time of arrival and hence linear range estimates.

WSN Nodes - MCS410CA

MEMSIC - Mems technology, Flow sensors, Accelerometers, Sensing technology, Inertial systems, Magnetometers, Tilt sensors.

MEMSIC Inc
One Tech Drive Suite 325 Andover, MA 01810, USA.

Thursday, August 14, 2014

DIY Potentiostat - CheapStat

CheapStat: An Open-Source, “Do-It-Yourself” Potentiostat for Analytical and Educational Applications.

CheapStat - DIY Potentiostat

CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80), open-source (software and hardware), hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry.

CheapStat - DIY Potentiostat

The device supports cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and stripping voltammetry over the potential range −990to +990 mV and over frequencies from 1 to 1000 Hz. The device supports a range of environmental, food and drug quality control, and educational applications. The reverse of the circuit board supports a three-line LCD display and a joystick, which is used to select an experiment protocol, change its parameters (frequency, starting voltage, end voltage, scan rate), and initiate the experiment.

The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license.

Saturday, August 09, 2014

Quite Universal Circuit Simulator - Qucs

An integrated circuit simulator. Sketch the circuit and simulate the large-signal, small-signal and noise behavior of the circuit. After that simulation has finished you can generate and display the simulation results on the presentation output page.

Quite Universal Circuit Simulator - Qucs

The Qucs GUI is well advanced and allows setting up schematics and presenting simulation results in various types of diagrams. DC, AC, S-parameter, noise and transient analysis is possible, mathematical equations and use of a subcircuit hierarchy (with parameterised subcircuits) are available. Qucs can also import existing SPICE models for use in your simulations.

Quite Universal Circuit Simulator - Qucs

EDA and Technical Software Components
  • ADMS -- Verilog-A translator 
  • ps2sp.pl -- A SPICE preprocessor 
  • ASCO (A SPICE Circuit Optimizer)
  • FreeHDL -- for VHDL digital simulations 
  • Icarus Verilog -- for Verilog-HDL digital simulations 
  • GNU Octave -- for Octave interactive interface
GNU Octave is a high-level interpreted language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides capabilities for the numerical solution of linear and nonlinear problems, and for performing other numerical experiments. It also provides extensive graphics capabilities for data visualization and manipulation.

Monday, August 04, 2014

Embedded.com - Embedded Systems Magazine

"Embedded Systems Design was created specifically to meet the information needs of the senior-level developers who create complex embedded systems. For 20 years it has helped them with hardware and software integration that results in designs that work."

Embedded.com - Embedded Systems

"You'll find a cornucopia of embedded software here. Browse through all of the code listings from past issues of Embedded Systems Programming magazine, dating back from the premiere issue and extending through the latest issue. Code is organized by year. Please select from the options provided."

Embedded Systems Programming ESP Source Code Archive

Embedded.com - Embedded Systems Magazine

All LCD based products, with the exception of some embedded systems, will require a controller to provide a suitable interface and very often a range of display functions critical to a project.

Designing a custom LCD display controller

When a standard LCD controller is not suitable for a particular display screen or application, OEMs must choose between custom designing their own, or hiring a company that specializes in building custom LCD controllers, such as Digital View. In this article, Digital View explains how to approach a custom LCD controller project, and why even experienced engineers sometimes prefer to outsource these designs.

Saturday, July 19, 2014

The Handy Board - The Cricket Robotics Controller

The Handy Board is a 6811-based microcontroller system that lets you build mobile robots for educational, hobbyist, and industrial purposes. People use the Handy Board to run robot design courses and competitions at the university and high school level, build robots for fun, and control industrial devices.

The Handy Board - The Cricket Robotics Controller
  • can control two motors and can accept two sensors, plus it has an expansion port for additional devices.
  • has a built-in infra-red port, so Crickets can communicate with each other.
  • is powered by four AA batteries.
  • is programmed using "Cricket Logo," a version of the powerful, yet easy-to-learn Logo language.



The Handy Cricket is a tiny robotics controller is much smaller than the Handy Board, weighing only a few ounces.

You can control motors and lights with the Cricket. The Cricket can receive information from sensors, like touch sensors and light sensors. Crickets can “talk” to each other, sending messages with infrared (IR) light. People have used Crickets to build little robots, animated rocking horses, automatic gift boxes, and other personal animated toys.

People have used Crickets to collect a bunch of temperature readings and look at them later. Crickets were developed at a major research university and now they are available to the public.

Friday, July 18, 2014

ASIX - Electronic Design Service

A private company located in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic. They offer complete turnkey electronic design followed by a product manufacturing in any quantity.

ASIX - Electronic Design Service

They have a wide range of experience in electronics - programmable logic devices (Xilinx FPGAs and CPLDs), microcontrollers (PIC, AVR, ARM, ...), analog and digital electronics...etc.

They also manufacture some tools and instruments that are useful for R&D using Embedded Systems. These are like Programmers, Debugging Tools and USB Products.

Even their Discontinued products are very interesting...

PVK40 a feature-rich development board for 40-pin PIC

PVK40 for 40-pin PIC

The board includes all the circuitry necessary for an in-depth study of most of the microcontroller on-chip peripherals and for experimenting with several external peripherals. This board will help you to become an expert in PIC MCU programming.

ASIX s.r.o.
Staropramenna 4 150 00 Prague Czech Republic

Wednesday, July 02, 2014

Wings 3D - A Polygon Modeler

Wings 3D is a subdivision modeller with an user interface that is easy to use for both beginners and advanced users (inspired by Nendo and Mirai from Izware).

Wings 3D - A Polygon Modeler

Standard tools such as Move, Scale, Rotate, Extrude, Bevel, Bridge, Cut, and Weld.

Advanced tools including: Sweep, Plane Cut, Circularise, Intersect, Bend, Shear, and Inset.

More Features
  • Magnets and Magnet Masking
  • Virtual Mirror for symmetrical modeling
  • Tweak and Sculpt
  • Wide range of Selection and Mesh tools
  • UV mapper, Vertex Colors, Materials, and Lights
Wings 3D gets its name from the Winged Edge Data Structure (WEDS). This is the data structure used to store the adjacency relationships between edges, faces, and vertices in a Wings 3D model..

Wings 3D offers a wide range of modeling tools, a customizable interface, support for lights and materials, and a built-in AutoUV mapping facility.

Quick and Dirty Wings3D Part Creation for KiCAD 3D Viewer
This quick and dirty Wings3D creation micro-tutorial covers creating a 3D part in Wings3D and exporting that part to KiCAD.

MicroPython Board Wings 3D

Jon's Place: Custom MicroPython Board

"KiCad can also show you a 3D rendering of what your board would look like, but you have to supply 3D models of any custom parts you include. My board has a whole pile of parts that I had to create my own footprint for (usb connector, uSD connector, all the Hirose DF-13 2, 3, 4, and 6-pin connectors, etc)."

Saturday, June 07, 2014

Arduino Open-source Electronics Prototyping

Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments.

Arduino Open-source Electronics Prototyping

Arduino Open-source Electronics Prototyping

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button.

It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

Arduino Ethernet

Arduino Ethernet

The Ethernet differs from other boards in that it does not have an onboard USB-to-serial driver chip, but has a Wiznet Ethernet interface. This is the same interface found on the Ethernet shield.

The Arduino Ethernet is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins, 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a RJ45 connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button.

Updated May 14

Wednesday, June 04, 2014

UPS Power Inverter and DC to AC

Learn about Power flow, Sags, Dips, Phase rotation, Harmonics, Flicker and more!

Power Quality Teaching Toy

Power Quality Teaching Toy

Standards

CBEMA - Computer Business Equipment Manufacturer's Association adopted curve IEEE Standard 446 (orange book) curve. Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby power systems for Industrial and Commercial Application."
  • Wave form Sine wave THD (total harmonic distortion) maximum 5%.
  • 3 Phase system phase imbalance of voltage 3% - 6%.
  • Frequency stability 60  +/- 0.5Hz.
  • Output Voltage +6% Max. -13% Min. from Nominal Value.
  • Voltage can fall to 0V but should recover in 0.5 Cycles.
  • On turn on Voltage should reach steady state within two seconds.
  • Upto 200% over Nominal Voltage should be tolerated for 100uS. ( Transients, spikes and Inductive Kickbacks come in this)
  • Upto 30% over Nominal Voltage should be tolerated for 0.5S.
ANSI - American National Standards Institute

"Standard Voltage Ratings for Electrical power systems & Equipment"
  • Steady State Variations +/- 5% of Nominal Voltage. T
  • Three Phase Voltage Imbalance 5% Max..
  • Standard Frequency 60Hz.
Glossary
  • Frequency 60Hz Hz is Hertz.
  • One Cycle = 20mS (milliseconds) one full sine wave.
  • Standard Frequency is 50Hz in many countries.
  • Max - Maximum
  • Min - Minimum
  • uS - micro seconds, S - seconds.
Cause of Transients
  1. Switching Loads Simultaneously (inductive loads).
  2. Power factor correction capacitors and devices.
  3. Lightning strikes (enhanced by earth faults).
  4. Line Inductance (inductive kickback, resonance).
  5. DC and AC Drives for Motors.
  6. Rectifiers with large filters and stray inductance.

CBEMA Guideline
The CBEMA guideline, created by the Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers Association is a realistic, at-the-equipment, maximum allowable voltage that equipment can withstand, without damage or upset.

Monday, June 02, 2014

Maxim Integrated - Analog Integration

They make unique and affordable semiconductor solutions in the areas or Analog and Mixed-signal. The digital and analog interface ICs are useful products in maxim for automotive and industrial product engineering.

Maxim Integrated - Analog Integration

They have Embedded Systems and Optical Communications in their Portfolio. They are well known for Power and Battery Management chips.

Some of products are - 1-Wire and iButton designs, Amplifiers, Analog Switches and Multiplexers, Clock Generation and Distribution, Data Converters, Design Services and Analog IP Blocks, Digital Potentiometers, Embedded Security, Energy-Measurement and Metering SoCs and more.

Novato smart sensor transmitter. - 4-20mA Loop-Powered Temperature Sensor with HART

The Novato reference design is a 16-bit, high-accuracy, loop-powered temperature transducer that transmits temperature information from a remote object to the central control unit over a 4–20mA current loop and using the highway addressable remote transducer (HART) communication protocol.

 Novato smart sensor transmitter.

HART Communication Protocol

The Novato reference design fully satisfies the HART physical layer requirements. The HART functions set is developed by AB Tech Solution, an engineering firm specialized in product development services for industrial automation applications.

Established in 1983, Maxim Integrated Products is a worldwide leader in design, development, and manufacture of linear and mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs).

Maxim circuits "connect" the real world and digital world by detecting, measuring, amplifying, and converting real-world signals, such as temperature, pressure, or sound, into the digital signals necessary for computer processing.

Maxim Integrated
160, Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 USA.

Monday, May 12, 2014

EMI RFI Filters and Electrical Noise Control

EMI RFI Noise Filters are required in two situations, to prevent EMI from an Electronic Equipment Like A Dimmer, Thyristor Drive, SMPS or Switcher affecting other Modules in a System or Neighboring Equipment.

The Second Situation is when a Sensitive Equipment Like a Medical Apparatus or Precision Measuring Instrument has to be Immune to any Noise from outside, as it can affect performance.

Sometimes it is Accuracy that can get affected, but some electrical jolts can damage or desensitize fine sensors or positioning systems.

EMI RFI Mains Power Filters

Filters are is connected in series with an Existing Mains Chord. It can also be Fixed in a Control Panel with a Clamp. The two X caps have higher Capacitance Value. The Y cap is Lower Value and withstands around 1kV,  It is better if X cap is AC 440V.

The common mode filter design in such a way that it cancels the noise. The correct winding polarity or direction is important for noise cancellation.

Related Resources

eEngineer - Electrical Engineering, EMI/EMC, RFI -  Introduction to EMI, EMC, RFI, Military EMC Standards, Radio Frequency Interference.

EMI Shielding RF Shielding - Tech-Etch designs and manufactures both standard catalog and customized shielding products.

Dealing with Computer generated RFI/EMI - Most of the time, the RFI generated is enough to render certain bands useless and on other bands, it may drown out any weak signals and distort or interfere with signals that you want.

TDK - Electronic Components & Materials - Electronic devices generate electromagnetic interferences, which can affect the proper functioning of electronic devices and systems

Here is one type i encountered in many T&M Instruments along with TDK too. It was Schaffner - electromagnetic compatibility - International leader in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and power quality (PQ). EMC Filters, RFI Suppression Chokes, Feedthrough Components.

Sunday, May 04, 2014

3D Modeling Rendering System K-3D

K-3D is the free-as-in-freedom 3D modeling, animation, and rendering system for GNU / Linux, Posix, and Win32 operating systems.

K-3D - 3D Modeling Rendering System

K-3D features a robust, object-oriented plugin architecture, designed to scale to the needs of professional artists, and is designed from-the-ground-up to generate motion-picture-quality animation using RenderMan-compliant render engines. We strongly recommend the Aqsis render engine for use with K-3D.

3D Modeling Rendering System K-3D

Some Features are
  • Powerful scene graph Procedural Modeling with complete modeling history.
  • Selection: Objects, meshes, faces, edges, patched, curves, point groups, points.
  • Geometry types: Polygon, NURBS, subdivision, blobby.
  • 3D Primitives: Cone, circle, cushion, cylinder, disk, grid, paraboloid, polyhedron, sphere, torus.
  • Boolean modeling operations (using GTS library).
  • Instantiation: Create duplicates without adding gemometry to the scene.

Friday, May 02, 2014

NI LabVIEW - Virtual Instrumentation

Regardless of experience, engineers and scientists can rapidly and cost-effectively interface with measurement and control hardware, analyze data, share results, and distribute systems.

NI LabVIEW - Virtual Instrumentation

LabVIEW is a graphical programming platform that helps engineers scale from design to test and from small to large systems
  • Tight integration with a wide range of measurement hardware
  • Easy-to-use graphical development environment
  • Extensive signal processing, analysis, and math functionality
  • Rapid user interface development for displaying live data
  • Multiple communication options (TCP/IP, UDP, serial, and more) 
The LabVIEW Platform, Part II

The LabVIEW Platform

LabVIEW is an open development platform that has gained acceptance in many different application areas and industries. Why? At its core, the LabVIEW graphical programming language has enabled thousands of scientists and engineers to develop complex measurement and control applications very quickly and easily.

LabVIEW Student Edition

"The graphical nature of LabVIEW makes it easier to develop working code faster. With LabVIEW, quickly drag and drop built-in functions to simplify acquisition, analysis, control, and data sharing so you can spend less time on syntax errors and more time on creating your application. "

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Zero-Crossing-Triac-Driver-Optocoupler-MOC3041

The MOC303XM and MOC304XM devices consist of a AlGaAs infrared emitting diode optically coupled to a monolithic silicon detector performing the function of a zero voltage crossing bilateral triac driver. MOC3041.

They are designed for use with a triac in the interface of logic systems to equipment powered from 115 VAC lines such as teletypewriters, CTRs, solid-state relays, industrial controls, printers, motors, solenoids and consumer appliances, etc

  • Simplifies logic control of 115 VAC power
  • Zero voltage crossing
  • dv/dt of 2000 V/µs typical, 1000 V/µs guaranteed
Motorola used to make these then it was Infineon Technologies now Isocom also makes it

MOC3041 Zero Crossing Triac Output, 6 Pin

See the original Motorola Application below.


MOC3041 Zero Crossing Triac Output, 6 Pin

These were used by me to make solid state relays. Look at the circuits here Power Electronics Circuits. The were used to control Heaters from DC control signal from a Proportional Temperature Controller. The Magnetic Contactors can be avoided for lower powers. At higher powers SCR banks become a bit expensive.

OC3041M: 6-Pin DIP 400V Zero Crossing Triac Driver Output Optocoupler

The SSR has no mechanical wear and tear but heat up at high currents. So if we overrate by 5 Times then it is an excellent solution for lower power controls upto 5 Kilo Watts. The cycle time of Contactors must be 20-60 Seconds to make it last long. In a SSR a one second cycle time is possible as 10-20mS is the switching speed due to zero crossing.

Sunday, April 13, 2014

Multisim from National Instruments

An industry-standard SPICE simulation environment from NI. An excellent yet easy to use tool for students and new design engineers too. It helps you in the design process, creating your first prototype and PCB.

Multisim from National Instruments

Learning and Testing circuits by simulation and checking out the best fit for your PCB.Getting your projects done right the first time without many trials.

Multisim from National Instruments

This application notes introduces different applications that include various semiconductor devices, simulated and validated in Multisim

Introduction to Simulation and Analysis of Semiconductor Applications

Features Include

Enhance Simulation with 26,000+ Accurate Devices Devices from Maxim, Infineon, NXP, ON Semiconductor, and Analog Devices add to the library of the latest SPICE models to evaluate design choices.

Complete Senior Design Projects With NI myRIO Support Use preconfigured NI myRIO NI miniSystem templates and LabVIEW co-simulation to develop advanced controls, robotics, and measurement projects.

Learn Digital Logic With Digilent FPGA Board Support Export digital logic schematics from Multisim in raw VHDL format to target a suite of FPGA digital teaching platforms.

Tuesday, April 01, 2014

Using Linux in Embedded Electronic Devices

Embedded Linux is not only Open Source, but can be adapted to any type of dedicated embedded system. It is more like a configurable firmware for Embedded Equipment. Its ability to manage multiple tasks efficiently makes it more friendly and stable, compared to any other OS.

When you look at the History of Operating Systems, you will see that that an OS that meant serious business was UNIX. It was the anvil for the creation of the C Language and AWK. Now we have Linux, the evolved Unix like OS, which is comfortable and versatile for Networking and Clustering.

Related Reading
Here is a Embedded Linux Wiki for the embedded product design community.

Gadgets and Appliances are become increasingly complex. More memory and CPU power for small devices are commonplace. Linux is one OS that can be muntzed to the smallest size. This helps developers make something like a super-firmware. Just what you need for that device, can be the OS.

Touchscreens for Home Appliances, wireless networking and web enabled consumer electronics make Linux an excellent escalation from "Firmware". For tiny systems a firmware is the OS. For complex devices today, Linux is user configured firmware.

Leopardboard DM355

Leopardboard DM355
  • High-performance Digital Media System on Chip 
  • ARM926EJ-S core 
  • Video Processing Subsystem (VPSS) 
DM355 combines high performance MPEG4 HD (720p) codecs and JPEG codecs up to 50M pixels per second, high quality, and low power consumption at a very low price point.

Seamless interface to most additional external devices required for a complete digital camera implementation.

Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Altera - FPGA CPLD Structured ASIC

Altera is one of the pioneers of Programmable Logic, following notable early leaders Signetics and MMI in introducing PLDs.

Altera - FPGA CPLD Structured ASIC 

Altera develops many features that are geared towards system-on-a-programmable-chip (SOPC) capability. Some of the more recent examples include embedded memory, embedded processors, and high-speed transceivers.

MAX 10 FPGAs are built on TSMC’s 55 nm embedded NOR flash technology, enabling instant-on functionality. Integrated features include analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and dual configuration flash allowing you to store and dynamically switch between two images on a single chip.

Altera 10M08 Evaluation kit

Highlights -

Analog blocks—Integrated analog blocks with ADCs and temperature sensor provide lower latency and reduced board space with more flexible sample-sequencing.

DSP blocks—As the first non-volatile FPGA with DSP, MAX 10 FPGAs are ideal for high-performance, high-precision applications using integrated 18x18 multipliers.

Altera 10M08 Evaluation kit provides easy access to the FPGA's I/O and ADC block and interfaces to potentiometer, LEDs, push-buttons, switches and several different connectors for expansion.

Altera Corporation
101 Innovation Drive San Jose, CA 95134, USA

Updated May 2015

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

Earthing Practice and Power Quality

"Earth leakage currents arise mainly from the EMC filters built into electronic equipment with switched mode power supplies. Standards limit the leakage current from non-fixed equipment (i.e. equipment that plugs into a standard socket outlet) to less than 3.5 mA. When a lot of electronic equipment is in use, the total leakage current in the protective conductor can become significant."

Earthing Practice by Trevor Charlton
  • Methods of Earthing
  • Earth Conductors
  • Electrical interference
  • Lightning Protection

Earthing Practice and Power Quality

Power Quality and Utilisation Guide

The PQ E-library is a collection of electronic technical reference documents covering introduction, costs, harmonics, resilience, voltage disturbances, earthing, energy efficiency and renewables/distributed generation. See also - Power Quality

Copper Development Association
  • Educational Resources
  • Computers cannot work without copper
  • Electricity in buildings
Copper Development Association Website for information on Copper and Copper Alloys

Copper Development Association - Resource Library

Copper Development Association provides a range of resources in support of the correct and efficient use of copper and copper alloys for major applications.

Monday, March 03, 2014

PC-Based Logic Analyzer - Intronix

The LogicPort provides 34 channels sampled at 500MHz. This includes two state-clock inputs which function as normal sampled channels in timing-mode. The LogicPort is controlled and powered via your PC's USB 1.1 or 2.0 port for the ultimate in convenience and portability.

PC-Based Logic Analyzer - Intronix

PC-Based Logic Analyzer - Intronix

The LogicPort's software includes interpreters for CAN, I2C, Synchronous Serial (SPI) and Asynchronous Serial (RS232) protocols. Its Synchronous Serial interpreter is very flexible and interprets 3-Wire, Microwire, PS/2 and other proprietary protocols in addition to SPI.

Feaures Include
  • Real-Time Sample Compression
  • 500MHz Timing-Mode (Internal Clock)
  • 200MHz State-Mode (External Clock)
  • Advanced Multi-Level Triggering
  • Built-in 300MHz Frequency Counter
  • CAN, I2C, SPI and RS232 Interpreters
Intronix is developing high-performance PC-based test instruments. They started as a ATE solutions provider. Automated test equipment and systems (ATE) are PC based Advanced T&M Interfaces.

Intronix Test Instruments, Inc.
2630 E. Mohawk Ln. Unit 144, Phoenix, Arizona 85050, USA.