Monday, December 08, 2014

Battery Charger and Rechargeable Batteries

The main Types of Rechargeable Batteries are NiCd - Lead Acid - NiMH - Lithium ion. The Gel Lead Acid Battery is Termed Maintenance Free and may have to be treated differently for charging.

List of battery sizes - Wikipedia

Battery Types and their Sizes

4.5 Volt - D - C - AA - AAA - 9 Volt - SR41/AG3 - SR44/AG13

Battery Charger Circuits and Resources

Solar charger for lead-acid batteries
The charger will stop charging once a pre-set voltage (temperature compensated) has been reached, and recommence charging when the voltage has dropped off sufficiently.

12 Volt Gel Cell Charger
When a discharged gel cell is connected, the charger goes into a fast charge mode at a fixed rate of 400 ma. After the chip detects the voltage leveling off or when 4 1/2 hours has elapsed.

Temperature Controlled NiCd Charger
This circuit is for a temperature controlled constant current battery charger. It works with NICD, NIMH, and other rechargeable cells.

Battery charger 150-1700 mAh with PIC16F876
This is the extension of the simple battery charger to different battery capacities. The software and the controller are largely identical.

MAX846A Cost-Saving, Multichemistry, Battery Charge Chip
In its simplest application, the MAX846A is a stand-alone, current-limited float voltage source that charges Li-Ion cells. It can also be paired up with a low-cost microcontroller (┬ÁC) to build a universal charger capable of charging Li-Ion, NiMH, and NiCd cells.

Rechargeable Batteries and Chargers
There are three types of rechargeable batteries. They are Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd), which are the oldest type; Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH), which were developed around the same time that low-cost digital cameras were invented.

Saturday, December 06, 2014

Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Product Safety
  • Product should not give even the lightest shock, Even metal parts on user side to be laminated.
  • High energy circuits never enters analog and digital circuit areas without Opto or other Isolation.
  • Gadgets, Furniture, Tools and Storage Units should not cause injury. Rounded Edges, Non Toxic.
Worker Safety
  • Helmet, Goggles and Face/Respiratory Mask when working with power tools/ abrasion and large objects.
  • Crepe Bandage, Neoprene Ankle/Knee/Thigh Support when pushing or pulling or Physical Exertion.
  • Waist/Back Support Belts and Straps to reinforce back/spine while doing Heavy Lifting or Movement.
  • Waistband Thick Belt or Traditional Sash helps Posture and prevents slipped disc or spinal injury.
  • When using a Knife, Sharp Tool, Pointed Tool or Drill; cut/bore away from your body or finger/leg not towards.
  • Use Long Riding Leather/Synthetic Boots when working in chemical plants and heavy industry.
  • Cross Ventilation and exhaust fans important if even little chemical fumes are generated in your work.
  • Soldering, plastic forming and even for some kinds of material processing. Good Ventilation or Masks needed.
Safe and Sound - Product Safety

Workshop Safety
  • Fire hazard and Air pollution in the workplace is the most important two dangers, Electricity is third.
  • Use Leather Boots when working with high voltage, also silicone flexible gloves or Latex Gloves.
My Recent Lessons -

I have long stopped using power tools as the injury is more in that. I have again started using small tools. Some notes.
Wear ear muffs when Noise present in surroundings to avoid distraction. When your own tools/work create too much noise, then also ear muffs protect ears, give some allowance/filter for audio feedback .
  • Cut away from you, not towards. Sharp tools and Power tools keep job at a distance. Watch for Splinters.
  • Both Legs and at least one hand insulated when working with High Voltage.
  • Use the right tool for the right job. Do not use cutting plair like a hammer.
  • Do not use Teeth, Legs etc. as tools. Only Iron and Steel should face the Job.

Monday, December 01, 2014

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

Ergonomics and Manpower the Engine of Growth -  A Worker in One Firm is a Customer for another Firm. Healthy and Safe Workers implies a strengthening Consumer base.Just imagine what wonders it can do for the economy, when you broaden your view, think togetherness, as a Whole; not in isolated competitive groups, not in parts.

Ergonomics reduces Worker Stress. Helps in keeping good Mental and Physical Health. Safety is very important. His Limbs, Eyes and Ears are assets that a firm hires.

Ergonomics and Safety of the Workplace

A good Manager knows that Manpower is the Foremost Asset of any Company.
First Aid and Flame Resistant Uniforms

Tools and Apparel to make workplace safe. First Aid and Safety, Fire Protection and Flame Resistant Clothing. Cleanrooms  are very important for Microelectronics, MEMS and Precision Instrumentation.

In spite of "Prevention better than cure", a worker can get injured, more so on the field, where preventive measures may not be in place. A Portable First Aid Kit that should be in Service and Commissioning Departments. A stitch in time saves nine. in reference to: "Your employees may require first aid at remote worksites, too."

Worker Safety and Health Education

When we educate ourselves about a Hazard, that awareness is the first step of defense. Resources like this should have a Kids Section. Just like Nasa and Fcc have. We have to catch them young, Interactive tutors and Activities will prepare them for a Safe and Sensible future. Home, Garden, Transport and School are also like a Workpace.

Kids of recent generations are degrading intellectually, it is more so in the developed countries. Education has to be emphasized, Hobby DIY activities encouraged. Hardships simulated, so they become responsible Young Citizens.

Rockefeller Jr. (A Philanthropist) was brought up with such discipline, he was not allowed entertainment when he was young. His father the richest man in the US at that time.

Resource for Workers and Employers. CDC - Workplace Safety and Health

Intrinsic Safety and Zener Barriers

Designing and Building Intrinsically safe Industrial Systems is of paramount importance as Human Safety is involved. Even in Switching Loads some contactors, relays, circuit breakers and motors are hazards as some sparking becomes inevitable.

Intrinsic Safety - Omega.com

Solid State Relays are safer but on an overload even these can pose a fire hazard if a HRC fuse is not used. Sensor measurements must employ low voltages and currents. Even cabling management and hermetically sealed enclosures may be required when volatile fluids are close by.

delabs Notes - 2002 -2005

Blocks

80C51 Analog Analog-Design Analytical-Instrumentation Android Application-Notes-2 ASIC-Design ASIC-SOC-FPGA Bipolar-Transistors Capacitors Circuit-Archive Circuit-Design Circuit-Design-2 Communications Communications-Chips Component-Testing Computer-IC-Module Computer-Interfacing Control-Systems Design-Service Design-Service-2 Design-Service-3 Digital Discrete-Semiconductors DSP EDA EDA-2 EDA-3 EDA-4 EDA-5 Educational Educational-2 Electrical Electromechanical Embedded Embedded-2 Embedded-Applications Embedded-Systems-Tools Energy-Power Engineering-Services Engineering-Services-2 Engineering-Services-3 ESD-EMI-RFI Firmware Home-Automation Industrial-Automation IoT-WSN-M2M LED-Lighting Magazines Manufacturing-Services Materials-Nanotech Mechanical-3D-CAD Mechatronics Medical-Electronics MEMS Microcontroller Microelectronics Mixed Mixed-Semiconductor Mixed-Signal-Design Opamps Open-Hardware Optoelectronics Organizations-Associations Passive-Components PCB-Layout Photonics-Optics PIC Power-Devices Power-Electronics Power-Electronics-Design Process-Control Process-Control-2 Product-Safety Product-System-Design Projects Quality Reference Research-Institutes RF-Components RF-Design RF-Engineering-Services RF-Microwave RF-Semiconductor RF-Wireless-Networking Robotics Scientific-Software Semiconductors Sensors SMPS-Power-Supply Software-Code Spice-Simulation Standards Standards-2 Tech-Docs Tech-Media Technical-Computing Test-Measurement TM-Applications Training-Consulting Virtual-Instrumentation