Wednesday, November 09, 2016

Logisim -Simulate Digital Logic Circuits

Logisim is an educational tool for designing and simulating digital logic circuits. With its simple toolbar interface and simulation of circuits as you build them, it is simple enough to facilitate learning the most basic concepts related to logic circuits.

Logisim -Simulate Digital Logic Circuits

Logisim -Simulate Digital Logic Circuits

With the capacity to build larger circuits from smaller subcircuits, and to draw bundles of wires with a single mouse drag, Logisim can be used (and is used) to design and simulate entire CPUs for educational purposes.

Some Features
  • The wiring tool draws horizontal and vertical wires, automatically connecting to components and to other wires. It's very easy to draw circuits!
  • Circuit layouts can be used as "subcircuits" of other circuits, allowing for hierarchical circuit design.
  • Included circuit components include inputs and outputs, gates, multiplexers, arithmetic circuits, flip-flops, and RAM memory.
  • The included "combinational analysis" module allows for conversion between circuits, truth tables, and Boolean expressions.

Sunday, November 06, 2016

Tuxgraphics AVR Microcontroller

You will find tutorials on how to build your own avr programmer, a digital DC power supply, a tiny web server, an ethernet weather station, usb slide show presenter and lots more.

Tuxgraphics AVR Microcontroller

digital DC power supply unit - A very small an really good DC bench power supply unit for your hobby lab. It has lots of features which you normally find only in very expensive power supplies. This one is affordable, small and easy to build.

Temperature and humidity measurements with the AVR web-server - Just add this one SHT11 sensor. No other components are needed to measure temperature + humitidy + dew point.

Mini 3 digit display, a small and inexpensive voltmeter module - We build a simple and inexpensive three digit display. It's a voltmeter module but it has also gerneral purpose digital IO pins.

Tuxgraphics AVR Microcontroller

Explore the world of avr microcontrollers and DIY electronics stuff. Microcontrollers and other electronic project kits and  parts.

Friday, November 04, 2016

AVR and ARM based Industrial Systems - ConTeK

Embedded Systems using ARM and AVR processors. In Industrial Process and Machine automation.

AVR and ARM based Industrial Systems - ConTeK

Engineering Services offered include technical support like design, calculations and realization. Development of electronics, control and software visualization systems to OEM's like Manufacturers of industrial machines or their parts.

AVR and ARM based Industrial Systems - ConTeK

CTB03 - Procesor unit with AVR 16MHz

 is small and cheap single board control system suitable for machine control where processing of small amount of signals is needed and where size of application program is less than 128 kB.
Some Specs
  • Wide range of power supply voltage 15-27 VDC
  • ATMEL AVR processor
  • 2KB nonvolatile FRAM for data storage
  • Battery-backed realtime clock
  • 16 digital inputs 24 V
  • 16 digital outputs with transistor switches
  • RS232 and CAN bus
  • 4 analog inputs and 4 analog outputs.
  • 2 inputs for direct connecting of load cell
  • 2 inputs with selectable range 0-5 V or 0-10 V
ConTeK Ltd.
V Zavetri 6/1478, 170 00 Prague 7, Czech Republic

Friday, October 14, 2016

High Efficiency Step Down Isolated Supply

60W AC-DC adapter, synchronous rectification, fixed frequency current mode PWM controller. Very Low Quiescent Burden, Efficiency above 85%. That's Green.

STMicroelectronics - EVALSTSR30-60W. Synchronous rectification using L6668 and STSR30.

EVALSTSR30-60W: 60W AC-DC adapter
EVALSTSR30-60W: 60W AC-DC adapter

The converter works in both Continuous and Discontinuous conduction mode depending on the input voltage (the circuit has a wide input voltage range) and the output load. The 68-kHz switching frequency provides a good compromise between the transformer size and the harmonics of the switching frequency, optimizing input filter.

High Efficiency Step Down Isolated Supply

The input section includes protection elements (varistor, fuse and NTC for inrush current limiting), a standard Pi-filter for EMC suppression, a bridge and an electrolytic bulk capacitor as the front-end AC-DC converter. The transformer is a layer type, uses a standard ETD34 ferrite core and is designed to have a reflected voltage of 95V. The power MOS is a 700V - 1Ω and a transil clamp network is used for leakage inductance demagnetization.

From STMicroelectronics

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

EMI RFI - ElectroMagnetic Interference

Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio-frequency interference or RFI when in radio frequency) is disturbance that affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
Electromagnetic interference Wiki

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna
170 – 1100 MHz with omni directional H-plane pattern

Who would know better about Radio Frequency Interference and ElectroMagnetic Interference more than the Hams or Amateur Radio Community.

If they have to communicate effectively using limited resources, they have to deal with EMI/RFI effectively, While they build their equipment or combat Noise from other Machines and Installations nearby.

This problem needs more practical involvement and experimentation to learn, compared to learning something like Digital Electronics.

Equipment and Electricals like SMPS, AC/DC Drives, Motors, Solenoids and CFL Lamps are to be built/reinforced for low EMI/RFI emission/radiation.

Sensitive Medical Equipment like ECG or even a Aircraft can be seriously affected by Noise.

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

Sunday, October 02, 2016

Rambus - IP Provider - Semiconductors

Technology licensing company. Manages and Provides Licenses to IP Intellectual property and Patents of semiconductor Technology. Founded in 1990.  XDR, DDR3, RDRAM and FlexIO are some of the Technology Solutions from Rambus.

Rambus - IP Provider - Semiconductors

"Beginning with edge-lit back lighting, Rambus has pioneered light guide-based design solutions for a broad range of LED lighting applications, enabling a new level of styling, efficiency and control of light."

LED lighting technology - Rambus

LED lighting technology

Rambus' lighting solutions enable manufacturers to use fewer or lower-cost LEDs in their general lighting products while delivering superior light quality and output.

Friday, August 12, 2016

NXP Semiconductors - Electronic IC Devices

NXP Semiconductors brings you a broad portfolio of advanced, trendsetting standard ICs products. they include standard and specialty Logic, I2C Logic, innovative Interface products, Microcontrollers, Analog, and RF.

NXP Semiconductors - Electronic IC Devices

They also have Discrete and Power Semiconductors like MOSFETs, Thyristors, Bipolar transistors and even Diodes.

NXP creates semiconductors, system solutions and software that deliver better sensory experiences in mobile phones, personal media players, TVs, set-top boxes, identification applications, cars and a wide range of other electronic devices.

Solutions in RF Identification, Power management Chips, Connectivity and for HandHeld Devices.

NXP (for Next eXPerience) Semiconductors is the name for the new semiconductor company founded by Philips.

ADC1x13DW1 Demo board from NXP

ADC1x13DW1 Demo board from NXP

"NXP's ADC demo board is suitable for dynamic performance evaluations from low to high IF configuration. The FPGA eases the evaluation and analysis of the ADC dynamic and enables use of the full JESD204A feature set"

Saturday, August 06, 2016

Analog Devices - Semiconductors and Signal Processing

They develop Analog Semiconductors, Digital Signal Processing, high performance signal processing solutions. Broadband Products, RF/IF Components, Embedded Processing and DSP.

Analog Devices - Semiconductors and Signal Processing

Products Include - Amplifiers, Processors, MEMS, A/D Converters, Temperature Sensors, RF Amplifiers, Differential Amplifiers, Thermal Management, D to A Converters, Microcontroller and Embedded Processing and DSP.

Circuit Note CN0147 - Powering a Fractional-N Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) with Low Noise LDO Regulators for Reduced Phase Noise

Circuit Note CN0147 - Analog Devices

This circuit uses low noise, low dropout (LDO) linear regulators to supply power to a wideband integrated PLL and VCO. Wideband voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) may have increased sensitivity to power supply noise, hence, ultralow noise regulators are recommended for best performance.

The evaluation board, which uses the ADP150 LDOs to power the ADF4350. The ADP150 represents the industry’s lowest noise LDO in the smallest package at the lowest cost.

Analog Devices, Inc
One Technology Way Norwood, MA 02062-9106, USA.

Monday, August 01, 2016

Data, Media and Telecommunications Standards

Wireless Communications now have voice, data, media. It has capability of the Internet, making a portable device part of the World Wide Web. There are companies and institutions that are making this utopia of a connected world possible with the systematic approach.

The Communications Network

Now with IoT, WSN and M2M a complexity arises. Robots, Drones, Automobiles and Machines have wireless connectivity with an IP address or a Phone Number. All this is possible when we think of technologies more like Wi-Fi and WiMax merging with mobile-cellular systems. We have to abandon the Towers and go for Modular Daisy Chain of Repeaters on Street Poles and Fiber Optic Nodes. Maybe like these folks say LightRadio Antenna Module

ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards - ETSI produces globally-applicable standards for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). Includes - Fixed, mobile, radio, converged, broadcast and internet technologies.

ITU-T - Infocommunications Standards - "ITU-T Recommendations are defining elements in information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Whether we exchange voice, data or video messages, communications cannot take place without standards linking the sender and the receiver. See " Telecommunication Standardization Bureau" TSB

CDG - 3G Wireless CDMA Development - "The CDMA Development Group (CDG), founded in December 1993, is an international consortium of companies who have joined together to lead the adoption and evolution of 3G CDMA wireless systems around the world." See also CDMA Technology

3GPP - Mobile Broadband Standard - "The original scope of 3GPP was to produce Technical Specifications and Technical Reports for a 3G Mobile System based on evolved GSM core networks …" Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), GPRS and EDGE.

IEEE - Broadband Wireless Access Standards - "The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access is creating the IEEE 802.16 family of WirelessMAN Standards for Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks."

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

Here are two important educational reference books from Texas Instruments in PDF format.

"While in the process of reviewing Texas Instruments applications notes, including those from the recently acquired Burr-Brown - I uncovered a couple of treasures, this handbook on active RC networks and one on op amp applications. These old publications, from 1966 and 1963, respectively, are some of the finest works on op amp theory that I have ever seen. Nevertheless, they contain some material that is hopelessly outdated. This includes everything from the state of the art of amplifier technology, to the parts referenced in the document - even to the symbol used for the op amp itself:"

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications - PDF
by Bruce Carter and Thomas R. Brown - sboa092a.pdf - 2.1 Mb

The operational amplifier is an extremely efficient and versatile device. Its applications span the broad electronic industry filling requirements for signal conditioning, special transfer functions, analog instrumentation, analog computation, and special systems design. The analog assets of simplicity and precision characterize circuits utilizing operational amplifiers.

Handbook of Operational Amplifier Active RC Networks - PDF
by Bruce Carter and L.P. Huelsman - sboa093a.pdf - 3.6 Mb

This is a handbook on active RC networks. The first question about this subject that one might ask is, "What is an active RC network?" The answer is simple. It is collection of resistors, capacitors, and an active element (or elements). Viewed in another sense; it is a circuit without inductors. Why leave out inductors? There are many reasons. First of all, the inductor is a relatively large and heavy element. This is especially true at frequencies in the audio range and below.

Saturday, July 09, 2016

John Loomis – Computing and Engineering

Dr. John S. Loomis is the Associate Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of The University of Dayton.

John Loomis - Course Web Pages

At the Course pages you can see subjects like Signal Processing, Digital Signal Processing, Analog Microelectronics Design and Electro-Optics.

The Altera DE2 board comes with a Control Panel facility that allows a user to access various components on the board through a USB connection from a host computer.

The DE2 Control Panel can be used to change the values displayed on 7-segment displays, light up LEDs, talk to the PS/2 keyboard, read/write the SRAM, Flash Memory and SDRAM, load an image pattern to display as VGA output, load music to the memory and play music via the audio DAC.

Altera DE2 Board

Altera DE2 Board and Projects with Nios II CPU

"The Altera Development and Education (DE2 ) board from Terasic Technologies Inc. is a wonderful vehicle for learning about digital logic, computer organization, and FPGAs. Featuring an Altera Cyclone II FPGA, the DE2 board offers varied technology suitable for university and college laboratory use, a wide range of design projects, as well as sophisticated digital system development tools."

Also see Microchip PIC32 - PIC32 Architecture and Programming

Friday, July 01, 2016

12-Bit, 4-20mA Loop-Powered System

An Application note and Evaluation Kit from Analog Devices. This solutions helps you evaluate a part of a Process Control or Data Acquisition module that you may wish to design.

"In the circuit, the ADuCM360 is connected to a Type T thermocouple and a 100 Ω platinum resistance temperature detector (RTD). The RTD is used for cold junction compensation. The low power Cortex-M3 core converts the ADC readings to a real temperature value. The Type T temperature range supported is −200°C to +350°C, and this temperature range is converted to an output current range of 4 mA to 20 mA."

12-Bit, 4-20mA Loop-Powered Thermocouple Measurement System

12-Bit, 4-20mA Loop-Powered System

The thermocouple used in this application is a Type T (copper-constantan) that has a temperature range of −200°C to +350°C. Its sensitivity is approximately 40 μV/°C, which means that the ADC in bipolar mode, with a PGA gain of 32, can cover the entire temperature range of the thermocouple.

The RTD was used for cold junction compensation. The particular one used in this circuit was a platinum 100 Ω RTD, Enercorp PCS 1.1503.1. It is available in a 0805, surface-mount package. This RTD has a temperature variation of 0.385 Ω/°C.

Monday, June 06, 2016

Linear Circuit Design Handbook - Hank Zumbahlen

Linear Circuit Design Handbook, edited by Hank Zumbahlen (Newnes, 2008), bridges the gap between circuit component theory and practical circuit design. Effective analog circuit design requires a strong understanding of core linear devices and how they affect analog circuit design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook – Hank Zumbahlen

This book provides complete coverage of important analog devices and how to use them in designing linear circuits, and serves as a useful learning tool and reference for design engineers involved in analog and mixed-signal design.

Linear Circuit Design Handbook - Hank Zumbahlen

Chapters Include

Sensors, RF/IF Circuits, Converters. Analog Filters. Power Management and …
  • Chapter 5: Fundamentals of Sampled Data Systems
  • Chapter 7: Data Converter Support Circuitry
  • Chapter 11: Overvoltage Effects on Analog Integrated Circuits
  • Chapter 12: Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Issues

Sunday, June 05, 2016

Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

Comprises Op Amp Basics, Specialty Amplifiers, Using Op Amps with Data Converters, Sensor Signal Conditioning, Analog Filters, Signal Amplifiers, Hardware and Housekeeping Techniques, and Op Amp History.

Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

In the past several years, many advances have been made in operational amplifiers and the latest op amps have powerful new features, making them more suitable for use in many products requiring weak signal amplification, such as medical devices, communications technology, optical networks, and sensor interfacing.

Walt Jung - OpAmp Applications Handbook

Walt Jung, analog design guru and author of the classic IC OP-Amp Cookbook (which has gone into three editions since 1974), has now written what may well be the ultimate op amp reference book.

As Jung says, “This book is a compendium of everything that can currently be done with op amps.” This book is brimming with up-to-date application circuits, handy design tips, historical perspectives, and in-depth coverage of the latest techniques to simplify op amp circuit designs and improve their performance.

Analog Dialogue: Analog Devices

See Application Notes too on Amplifiers and Comparators, Current Sense Amplifiers, Differential Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Isolation Amplifiers.

Friday, June 03, 2016

Successful PCB Grounding - Mark Fortunato

This tutorial discusses proper printed-circuit board (PCB) grounding for mixed-signal designs. For most applications a simple method without cuts in the ground plane allows for successful PCB layouts with this kind of IC.

Successful PCB Grounding - Mark Fortunato

"Ground Is Not an Equipotential - At this point it is important to understand that a ground plane, despite what we were taught it EE101, is not an equipotential. First of all, no matter how thick the copper is for your ground plane, it does have resistance. Therefore, if the analog and digital return currents (or any two currents) share a portion of the ground plane (i.e., their currents flow through the same metal) there will be crosstalk between the two as the copper resistance causes IR voltage drops."

Successful PCB Grounding - Mark Fortunato

"With the basics of current flow on a PCB understood, we can start using this knowledge to properly handle the grounding of mixed analog-digital ICs. Ultimately, the goal is to ensure that the digital and analog currents do not share portions of the same return path."

"Many problems with mixed-signal PCB design can be avoided by following this simple advice: pay attention to where the current flows. For most cases all we have to do is remember two basic principles: DC and low frequencies flow mostly in the straight-line path of least resistance between source and load; and high-frequency signals follow the path of least impedance, which is directly under the signal trace. In-between frequencies flow by both paths and in between the two paths."

Saturday, May 07, 2016

Nordic Semiconductor - Wireless Microchip

A semiconductor company specializing in design solutions at the microchip level in the areas of wireless communication and multimedia. Nordic Semiconductor ASA is a world leader in high-speed data converters and short-range radio communication.

Nordic Semiconductor - Wireless Microchip

ANT is a proven, ultra low power, flexible and easy-to-use network protocol for 2.4GHz ISM band communication. ANT provides multivendor interoperability via the ANT+ managed network and the member companies of the open ANT+ Alliance.

Useful for ultra low power wireless sensor network applications including wireless sensors and hubs.

ANT - Single chip ICs/solutions

ANT is perfectly suited for any kind of low data rate sensor network topologies in personal area networks (PANs) and practical wireless sensor networks

Nordic nRF51 SoC Eval Kit

"Nordic Semiconductor has released a matchbox-sized, low cost, battery-powered eval kit for its latest nRF51 Series of SoCs that allows engineers to perform real-world environmental testing of ANT+, Bluetooth low energy (including Bluetooth Smart), and proprietary 2.4GHz ultra low power wireless sensors and accessories 'in the field'"

Nordic Semiconductor ASA
Otto Nielsens veg 12 Trondheim, 7052 Norway

Friday, May 06, 2016

LM2575 - Buck Adjustable Switching Regulator

"The buck-boost regulator circuit delivers -5V output. I hoped this would a nice way to generate a negative voltage for e.g. an LCD-display. However this circuit requires component values that are similar to the buck regulator at high load."

Experiments with the LM2575

Here is a nice way of using this regulator, this can be used for CMOS opamps as you have a -5V too. That means a portable instrument may find this design useful.

The TI Datasheet Layout Guidelines

LM2575 Switching Regulator
LM2575 - Step-Down Adjustable Voltage Switching Regulator with Output Enable

The LM2575 represents a superior alternative to  popular three-terminal linear regulators. Due to its
high efficiency, it significantly reduces the size of the heat sink.

The device also offers internal frequency compensation, a fixed-frequency oscillator, cycle-by-cycle current limiting, and thermal shutdown.

Sunday, May 01, 2016

LED Drive using TPS61042 from TI

This Chip from TI is simple to integrate into your designs and this solution is good for production of lighting gadgets, here a consistent quality and predictable performance is easily obtained.

TPS61042 30-V, 500-mA Switch Boost Converter in QFN-8 for White LED Applications

LED-driver application that drives four LEDs with 20 mA of forward current and operates from an input voltage range of 1.8 to 6.0 V.

LED Drive using TPS61042 from TI

The entire circuit consists of the control IC, two small ceramic caps, an inductor, a diode, and a current sense resistor. The primary power-supply functions and the secondary features such as load disconnect, overvoltage protection, and PWM dimming have been implemented with a control IC and five small surface-mount passive components.

LED-driver considerations By Michael Day

Monday, April 04, 2016

ET the Technology Interface

Technology Interface ia an on-line journal for the Engineering Technology profession serving education and industry. The Technology Interface has been developed to provide professionals in the Engineering Technology profession and related fields, the opportunity to share ideas concerning teaching, teaching improvements, projects, industrial activities, research and much more via the internet.

ET the Technology Interface - Wayback

"Use of a PC Printer Port for Control and Data Acquisition by Peter H. Anderson Department of Electrical Engineering Morgan State university Abstract: A PC printer port is an inexpensive and yet powerful platform for implementing projects dealing with the control of real world peripherals...."

DMM and Scope

Use of a PC Printer Port for Control and Data Acquisition

"Building an 8-bit PC-Based Logic Analyzer by Kyle C. Quinnell Department of Engineering Technology New Mexico State University Abstract This paper presents a way of using a PC computer as a an 8-bit Logic Analyzer...."

Building an 8-bit PC-Based Logic Analyzer:

delabs Notes

A student can also on his own have a small lab in his house and start building and programming to supplement his academic training. You can build your lab from scratch, build your own test equipment. Start Somewhere. Build something and sharpen skills.

Open Hardware Design - BitScope

BitScopes are USB or Ethernet connected PC Based Mixed Signal Oscilloscopes. This means they capture and display one, two or four analog signals and eight logic or timing signals, simultaneously. Any BitScope can be used as a Digital Storage Oscilloscope, Logic State Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer or Data Recorder.

Open Hardware Design - BitScope

This is a Open Schematics Design of the Early Bitscopes. This is good for learning about Scopes and Logic Analyzer. The Current Bitscopes are evolved versions are not Open Designs but are similar to this.

Open Hardware Design - BitScope

Students should see the Input Stages and also the Interface circuits.  BitScope Designs

The problem these days is that the students are learning embedded systems and programming language. Their Component and Product Hardware learning is weak, this can only be acquired by working in companies and R&D institutions. The only other alternative is to be a Hobby DIY Enthusiast and start building things at Home or Hobby Community Gatherings.

I would suggest …build a part of this and study. Then make Something on your own.

Open Hardware or Designs

As an Electronics design engineer or group sees it, some may include gnu type freedom, it could be just open-source. It would also be like a creative commons type design. Then it would even be just like  .....

"I have given you the schematics, pcb and software you can build, improve and learn from it"

Do not claim them as your own, give the credit its due. Respect the creator and designer.

The commercial products that evolved from the above designs.  

USB BitScope 310 - PC Oscilloscope

BS310U is a robust general purpose USB Mixed Signal Scope and Data Acquisition device. BS310U is backward compatible with BS300U which it replaces.

It has 4 times as much capture buffer, a software switchable x10 and x50 analog input multiplier and AC/DC coupling, switchable 50 ohm termination, a double speed built-in USB host interface all in a physical package about 2/3 the size and weight of BS300U.

Friday, April 01, 2016

Intusoft - Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuit Design Tools

SPICE Simulation, Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuit Design Tools, Magnetics Transformer Design Software, and Test Program Software.

Intusoft - Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuit Design Tools

Established in 1985, Intusoft designs and markets today's leading analog and mixed-signal design automation tools, backing each product with the industry's most extensive service and support program.

Intusoft - Magnetics Designer

Magnetics Designer is a standalone software program for Windows that designs all types of layer (and sector/split bobbin) wound transformers and inductors, and generates a corresponding SPICE model. Magnetics Designer produces a complete transformer or inductor design based upon electrical specifications, including a winding sheet report and a SPICE-compatible model with parasitics.

2500 Via Cabrillo Marina, Suite 304 San Pedro, CA 90731 USA

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

CA3140 and CA3130 Special Opamps

CA3140 and CA3130 are originally RCA part numbers( i feel). They are amazing close to ideal opamps, the input offset has to be trimmed. I used to use it when high input impedance is required. 1.5T ohm 10pA is the specs. A Electrometer can be made with just one opamp.

CA3130 has the additional Merit of swinging to the rails, if you are on a +/- 12V supply, the output will be +/-12V. This is a feature required in control applications.

These devices are now available with Intersil.

CA3140 -4.5MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/Bipolar Output

The CA3140A and CA3140 BiMOS operational amplifiers feature gate protected MOSFET (PMOS) transistors in the input circuit to provide very high input impedance, very low input current, and high speed performance. The CA3140A and CA3140 operate at supply voltage from 4V to 36V (either single or dual supply).

Voltage regulator that uses CA3130

A voltage regulator that uses CA3130 - Range 0.1 to 50V at 1 Amp.
CA3130 - 15MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/CMOS Output

"15MHz, BiMOS Operational Amplifier with MOSFET Input/CMOS Output
A CMOS transistor-pair, capable of swinging the output voltage to within 10mV of either supply-voltage terminal (at very high values of load impedance), is employed as the output circuit."

Applications - Ground-Referenced Single Supply Amplifiers, Fast Sample-Hold Amplifiers, Long-Duration Timers/Monostables.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

WARP Speed IGBT - International Rectifier

IGBTs are voltage-controlled power transistors, that have higher current densities than equivalent high-voltage power MOSFETs.

WARP Speed IGBT - International Rectifier


IRG4PC40W - 600V Warp 60-150 kHz Discrete IGBT in a TO-247AC package

Features Include
  • 2 to 2.5 times the current density of MOSFETs 
  • Lower conduction losses at equivalent current rating compared to MOSFETs 
  • Reduced current tail for high frequency operation 
  • "Positive-only" gate drive 
Lower switching losses allow more cost-effective operation than power MOSFETs up to 150 kHz ("hard switched" mode)

Of particular benefit to single-ended converters and boost PFC topologies 150W and higher

Low conduction losses and minimal minority-carrier recombination make these an excellent option for resonant mode switching as well (up to >>300 kHz)

The IGBT in TO-247 delivers the same efficiency at full loadas the MOSFET in the larger TO-247 package.

Tuesday, March 01, 2016

Open Hardware and Product Designs

Product and Circuit Design Pages with Complete Projects accompanied by Circuits and Code.
Electronic Product Design

Open Hardware and Product Designs

Open Hardware Design many not be like Free Software. Free Hardware Designs existed even before Computers, Software or even free software came into being.

Radio Electronics carried one of the first free computer designs. You copy the circuit and build it. Like Woodwork Designs and plans in Popular Mechanics.

This is the way an Electronics design engineer or group see it, some may include gnu type freedom, it could be just open-source. It would also be like a creative commons type design. Then it would even be just like .....

Open Hardware and Product Designs

The Woodwork License

"I have given you the schematics, pcb and software you can build, improve and learn from it"

Open Hardware or Designs - Give Credits and Thanks

Do not claim them as your own, give the creator his due credit. Respect the rights of the creator and designer.

Some of the Designs are Application Notes, Evaluation Boards with Open Hardware. These may not be Open Source and some may be Copyright in design terms, still they are open designs.

The Electronic Design Difference

A free electronic design, like one that comes with a semiconductor application note or single board computer kit is not necessarily like open source but are still open designs.

Some Open Designs and Open Hardware are not Like FOSS or GNU but limited use and application. Still the Schematics, PCB and Firmware are Free to use, apply and learn.

Sunday, February 07, 2016

ICL7135 4 and Half A to D converter with BCD Output

The Intersil ICL7135 precision A/D converter, with its multiplexed BCD output and digit drivers, combines dual-slope conversion reliability with ±1 in 20,000 count accuracy and is ideally suited for the visual display DVM/DPM market. The 2.0000V full scale capability, auto-zero, and auto-polarity are combined with true ratiometric operation, almost ideal differential linearity and true differential input. All necessary active devices are contained on a single CMOS lC, with the exception of display drivers, reference, and a clock.

ICL7135 4 and Half A to D converter with BCD Output

ICL7135 Device Information
  • Accuracy Guaranteed to ±1 Count Over Entire ±20000 Counts (2.0000V Full Scale)
  • Guaranteed Zero Reading for 0V Input
  • 1pA Typical Input Leakage Current
  • True Differential Input
  • True Polarity at Zero Count for Precise Null Detection
  • Single Reference Voltage Required
  • Overrange and Underrange Signals Available for Auto-Range Capability
  • All Outputs TTL Compatible
  • Blinking Outputs Gives Visual Indication of Overrange
  • Six Auxiliary Inputs/Outputs are Available for Interfacing to UARTs, Microprocessors, or Other Circuitry
  • Multiplexed BCD Outputs
See how i used them in my projects

Friday, February 05, 2016

Mechatronics a Montage of All Engineering

I once knew a dogbert, i will not name him. Yet his words resonated as true again and again. Once when someone asked him .. "Where the highest value can be created, in an engineered product?". He reveled a profound secret, that is only discussed in whispers in the backrooms of high-tech upstarts. I will attempt to phrase it in a more concise manner.

"When the raw materials transform into an Engineered product, the highest engineering value is both in the manufacturing process machinery and the manufactured product; If and only if, that product has mechanical, electrical, electronic and computing elements in its composition." - This was Mechatronics?

In essence it appeared to be a CNC machine, but not exactly, CNC too and much more. Robotics is a pinnacle of this collage. Then an Intelligent Embedded Control System with sensors, switches, tachos, drives and motor a part of Mechatronics. Looks like control engineering, a sub-section of mechatronics too. Control engineering is also an independent science. Can't leave out Intelligent machinery and Complex Gadgets.

Without chemical, component and materials engineering all the above cannot materialize. They create the inputs and technologies to the systems above.

Finally two examples for Mechatronic Marvels - One the Lone Martian called Rover (like Wall-E) and the Ultra Busy HardDisk HDD in your own Computer.

Mechatronics a Montage of All Engineering

Related Sciences

Systems Engineering - Managing and Integrating a Large Engineered System Solution. Includes Process, Project, Time, Work-flow, Co-ordination and Communication. (Means .. many Crimson Ties and a lot of Meetings ;-)

Mems - Micro, Electronic/Electrical, Mechanical Systems. Start Reading in detail about it, but never skip Lunch. -
  1. Mechatronics Tutorial Information
  2. Mechatronics - National Instruments
  3. Mechatronics Resources
  4. Mechatronic Tips
  5. Mechatronics - Sun Equipment Corporation
  6. Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics
  7. University of Wisconsin - Madison : Mechatronics Lab

Monday, February 01, 2016

HwB - The Hardware Book - Joakim Ögren

Hardware Book. Internet's largest free collection of connector pinouts and cable descriptions. Connectors, Pinouts for connectors, buses, Cables, How to build serial cables and many other cables. Adapters How to build adapters. tables with info. like AWG.

HwB - The Hardware Book - Joakim Ögren

HwB - The Hardware Book - Joakim Ögren

Some Topics
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  • Binary conversion
  • Serial Port Loopback (9 CheckIt)
  • Ethernet 10/100/1000Base-T

Wednesday, January 06, 2016

Two Op-Amp Differential Amp

This is an ideal circuit for sensor amplification. Strain Bridge circuits too. It is an instrumentation amplifier, means precision. High input impedance to a differential input signal source. The gain can be set with external resistors to over 1000. CMRR trim to match resistor network.

Linear Technology Circuit Two Op Amp Instrumentation Amplifier

Two Op-Amp Differential Amp

I measure Instrumentation Amplifier like this - Tera Ohms Impedance, Pico Amps Bias Current. Micro Volts Offset Voltage. Here is a Interactive demo i built for such a configuration. The Input Impedance of this module is very high and is symmetric. This circuit can be used for strain gauges and for four wire measurements. If inputs are in mV use OP07. The merit is that it uses only 2 OpAmps yet has high differential Input Impedance.

Dual Op-Amp Differential Amp Tutorial

The Outputs of Opamps are low impedance but still have limits they cannot drive more than a few mA of Current into the Load. If low ohmic value loads are to be applied use external transistors as amplifiers. If inputs Vn-Vp are floating, outputs may be random or oscillating, it is good to have a bias network of 10M resistors to a potential even zero or common, this enables some Vout when input floats.

Saturday, January 02, 2016

Raspberry Pi and MSO-28 Virtual Scope

PiMSO, is a Raspberry Pi controlled 200Msa/s mixed signal oscilloscope.  PiMSO, a spinoff of WebMSO, is an experimental project to understand the necessary components required to deploy the MSO-28 mixed signal oscilloscope on mobile devices.

The PiMSO lets you run a USB based Oscilloscope/Logic Analyzer from a Raspberry PI. The Oscilloscope is controlled via the browser on phone, tablet, PC or MAC. The connection to the host is via WIFI or Ethernet.  PiMSO consists of eight parts:

 Raspberry Pi and MSO-28 Virtual Scope

The MSO-28 is a 2 GSa/s Oscilloscope and 200 MSa/s Logic Analyzer. It is extremely portable.

The MSO-28 has time synchronized oscilloscope and logic analyzer inputs. All 10 channels are sampled at the same time and are displayed together. This is better than separate instruments because the analog and digital waveforms are acquired with the same sample clock assuring accurate time correlation between the two.

Add a RaspberryPi or Intel Edison for remote operation via the web.  Control the MSO-28 remotely from your Android, IOS or web browser.

Friday, January 01, 2016

Embedded Development using VisSim - Visual Solutions

VisSim is a software tool by which we can do mathematical modeling, simulation, and model-based embedded development with a friendly and easy visual language.

Embedded Development using VisSim - Visual Solutions

"VisSim is a block diagram language for creating complex nonlinear dynamic systems. To create a model, simply drag blocks in the workspace and connect them with wires. Then click the Go button to initiate your simulation. The response is instantaneous."

 "VisSim's tightly integrated development platform makes it easy to pass freely among the stages of model construction, simulation, optimization, and validation. This means you can create virtual prototypes on your desktop and make sure they're working properly before committing to the design."

VisSim - Digital Power Designer

VisSim - Digital Power Designer

VisSim/Digital Power Designer provides high level blocks for simulation and code generation of power supply and digital power components and controls. VisSim/Digital Power Designer blocks let you develop a working controller which can be directly downloaded to the MCU for digital power applications.

Visual Solutions, Incorporated
487 Groton Road Westford, Massachusetts 01886,USA.